Tatiana Seijas notes in Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico that “San Jacinto stands apart from other religious institutions for its large number of chino slaves and for the way they were employed.” Seijas continues that their roles were not only “as servants to attend to the traveling men and also to upkeep the rest home,” but also “cultural intermediaries” used for “introducing friars to foreign traditions” (126). Transiting the western-most fringes of the Spanish empire, missionaries studied both books in libraries and the people whose forced labor maintained the facilities. This book, flung through history, remains with us as evidence of these encounters and an embodiment of the workings of empire.
Let’s consider just the book’s covers which are made of vellum, animal skin specially treated to be tough and smooth but still very flexible, perfect for a library whose contents would be at the disposal of many studious but weary travelers. Look closely and just beneath the vellum cover is what appears to be text. Sheets of printed waste—recycled pages from another printed book—have been used as endpapers to protect the main text and attach it to the covers. Whatever text visible on the waste sheets was not meant to be read but only provide support for the physical structure of the book.
If the firebrand tells us that this book was once lodged, literally and figuratively, into colonial Mexican society in a place where European and East Asian cultures mixed, what might we learn about the time and place in which this book circulated by examining the printed waste end papers?
Only fragments of the recycled text are visible. Among vellum’s qualities is its naturally off-white translucence. Shining a light through the rear cover I could see what was pasted down on the other side of the illustration of Saint Augustine. Though barely legible, the page layout told me that it was the title page. The main giveaway was the imprint statement at the bottom, which reads in part:
Viuda de Miguel de Ortega en los Portales de las Flores, 1727
From consulting Jose T. Medina’s Imprenta en Puebla de Los Angeles, 1640-1821, I learned this printer was active in Puebla, Mexico, in the 18th century. The “viuda’s” (widow) name was Manuela Cerezo and she belonged to a prominent family of printers. It was common in Europe and the Americas at this time for widows to carry on the business after her husband’s death. Interestingly, the details of this book, such as place of publication, year, printer, or content—it’s presumably a novena, a sort of guide to devotional practice which became popular in eighteenth century Mexico, dedicated to Saint Augustine—do not match any entries in Medina’s bibliography, nor does any library report holding a complete edition in OCLC’s Worldcat database. These eight pages (of which only 6 can be read unaided) appear to be all that remains of what would have once been a commonplace text.
There are many ways to approach a book. The very legible firebrand contrasts with the novena fragment, which was not meant to be read and whose survival seems almost to be complete chance. By focusing on these two aspects (which are literally on the periphery of the book) we broaden our understanding of the materials, institutions, and practices that supported the circulation of texts in colonial Mexico.
Jose Guerrero, Cataloging & Metadata Librarian, Sutro Library.
 The brand is an abbreviation of “San Jacinto Ordinis Praedicatorum [Order of Preachers],” the Latin being the official name of the Dominican Order.
[The following entry is from guest blogger and SF State University undergraduate, Jason Castillo, who volunteered at the Sutro Library in Spring 2020 before he graduated. He supplied all of the text and images that follow.]
The idea of interfacing with an archive like the Sutro Library is likely to come with a bit of apprehension. Professors, students, or even the general public might not be entirely sure of the enrichment a public resource like the Sutro Library can provide. A professor might not have a clear understanding of exactly how an archive can be utilized to supplement topics they have covered in lecture. A student writing a paper might not have a clear understanding of how to navigate the California State Library’s (CSL) database to see exactly what is available. The public might not be aware that they too are able to request viewing of items of interest.
What follows is an account of a project that I finished at the Sutro Library for a History Department professor who incorporates a class trip to the Sutro into her courses. Her utilization of the library as a classroom fosters an environment for her students that includes hands-on experience with historic materials such as maps, books, and newspapers that both reinforces the topics covered in lecture as well as develops her students’ ability to apply critical thinking to complex historical topics. She recently asked the Sutro Library director to develop a hands-on primary source analysis that can expand upon an assigned class reading by author Jason W. Smith that equates the United States’ pacific exploration of the mid 1800s as a nautical continuation of Manifest Destiny. In his 2018 book, To Master the Boundless Sea, Jason W. Smith approaches the United States’ scientific exploration of the Pacific in the 19th century as a means to expand its political, economic, and cultural influence beyond its national borders. The book focuses heavily on the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (frequently abbreviated as U.S. Ex. Ex. and also known as “The Wilkes Expedition”) in which a U.S. Naval Lieutenant, Charles Wilkes, was tasked by Congress with commanding a fleet of vessels to explore and survey all regions of the Pacific Ocean. This was not a typical naval mission, as it included a comprehensive group of scientists along with the normal crew of sailors. This group included a pair of naturalists, a botanist, mineralogist, conchologist, and philologist among several others; an outfit well equipped to “extend the bounds of science” all while “promoting…the great interests of commerce.”
These topics: Manifest Destiny, the Wilkes Expedition, and the Pacific Ocean—enable us to focus on the history of Hawaii as a place where all three of these vast ideas converge.
When I searched the State Library’s catalog for materials about Hawaii, I received over 200 results. That seemed to be quite a bit to wade through, but I quickly connected the dots that they were all written by non-indigenous peoples with differing experiences with the islands: missionaries, tourists, wealthy people with homes on the islands, government officials, etc. Approaching the islands in this manner allowed me to further break down the results–“let’s try to get representation from each of these categories of authors.” Not only would it allow me to see the diversity of experience in the travelers to this portion of the Pacific, but perhaps it would add some variation to how the natives and their culture were represented. As a History Major, I would be remiss if I didn’t illustrate the all too frequent lack of voices that would allow us to glean a more mutual understanding of the world’s past. For example, I was fairly certain that I would not find any first-person accounts from the island’s indigenous peoples; if that was what I was searching for, I would have to try to find their voices via indirect sources.
Choosing a few books from American missionaries, wealthy tourists, and government officials provided insight into not only the islands of Hawaii, but also the motives and opinions of the authors who documented their travels. I found that despite their backgrounds, two common threads seemingly ran through all of their works. The first one was that they all took the stance that the indigenous population would be “better off” if they submitted and assimilated to the ways of European and American people. An example of this comes from William Bliss, a wealthy American, who sailed to the islands in the 1870s to escape from a “northern winter” and took the stance that despite some general cultural improvements via missionaries, there was “great room” to improve upon the natives’ “moral and physical condition.”
The second thread among writers at this time was the constant consideration each author gave to potential crops which always included insight into the labor required to harvest those crops, as well as the economic benefit of doing so. An example of this can be seen in table of contents of the writing of James Jarves’, a New Englander who spent five years living on the islands, and devoted almost an entire chapter in his book to agricultural pursuits.
In addition to books written from the vantage point of wealthy, non-native male tourists, the Sutro Vault contains several books that reflect the work and voices of non-native female missionaries and tourists. For example, one can find an illustration of a female missionary attempting to convert the island’s natives and another female author who offers her insight after spending six months on the main island “for health reasons.”
As the 19th century came closer to its end, we see works in the Sutro Vault that convey America’s a more direct, calculated, and forceful stance in its relationship with Hawaii. Not unlike the ways in which Manifest Destiny drove settlement in the western part of the continental United States, we can find publications that portray an extremely pointed attitude towards Hawaiian settlement, policy, and even resource extraction. Notable examples of this can be seen in the 1894 writings of U.S. Minister to the Kingdom of Hawaii, John L. Stevens (also in the Sutro Vault) noted below.
This source is notable because in 1894, Hawaii had yet to be annexed by the U.S.
In regards to the original argument by Jason Smith, one could argue that the culmination of all these efforts concerning Pacific exploration, from the U.S. Ex. Ex to the work of the missionaries, can be seen in a book published by the Department of Foreign Affairs immediately after the islands’ annexation, The Hawaiian Islands: A Handbook of Information (1899)–also part of the Sutro collection. This book was published after the federal government was inundated with requests from the public about settling and establishing businesses in the newly acquired territory. It reads very much like a “how-to” guide to help Americans settle, form businesses, attract labor and otherwise thrive. It was mailed back in lieu of answering each individual inquiry.
Although I have learned a lot through this process of curating a collection of materials for a SFSU professor and her class, I am still left with many questions. Will the professor’s students feel that Jason Smith’s argument is appropriate? Will they be inspired by portions of Smith’s work and be able to expand upon his argument? Will they dismiss his argument and advance one of their own?
There is a reasonable likelihood that any of these could come to fruition. That is the beauty and importance of an institution like the Sutro Library: it provides the opportunity for all people to explore, embrace, and challenge historical developments of the past. I truly hope this article encourages you to think about the ways in which you could engage with the sources of Sutro Library.
Today’s post is written by the Sutro Library’s Genealogy Librarian, Dvorah Lewis.
Several years ago when I first started my genealogical research, I only knew a few sentences about my great great grandmother, Ida (Gross) Cohen: she immigrated to America (Philadelphia to be exact) from Russia by herself with her family’s locket stitched in her skirt to prevent it from being stolen (this locket is now under my mother’s guardianship); she sang in the Yiddish Theatre (still trying to prove this one); and she died from an abortion — her four children becoming orphans. The term “orphan” usually refers to someone who has lost both parents, but it has changed to encompass children with only one deceased parent. Even though Ida’s husband was still alive at the time of her death, he could not provide care for the children and admitted them into a Jewish orphanage.
Orphanages have been a part of American history long before the country declared its independence. Nuns founded the first orphanage in 1729 after many adult settlers were killed in the Natchez Revolt located in modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.  In response to illness, poverty, urbanization and immigration, more orphanages were established in the mid-nineteenth century. Prior to that, there were reformatories known as poorhouses or almshouses which sheltered everyone who had suffered from poverty including criminals, the sick, and orphans. Because of the poor conditions and the minimal rations of food, diseases spread quickly. Another option that was considered in handling the cities’ orphans was the orphan trains where children were transported from overpopulated cities on the East Coast to the Midwest and picked by potential foster parents. Orphans were usually given to Christian families, so if the child was Jewish then conversion was inevitable. 
This leads to the reason Jewish orphanages were created: to help foster and preserve the children’s Jewish heritage. For this very reason, Rebecca Gratz (a well-known Jewish Philadelphian and philanthropist) co-founded the first Jewish orphanage in America: the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum. Later known as the Foster Home for Hebrew Orphans, it’s this same orphanage where my great grandmother and her siblings were admitted in 1927.
By now, you might be wondering: how does a researcher continue tracing their family history if an ancestor was an orphan? For my personal research, the first document I came across was the 1930 Census which confirmed that my great grandmother and her siblings lived in an orphanage, and it identified where in Philadelphia it was located.
Another place to start is to look at local histories or city directories (which sometimes have mini-local histories in them) and learn about how the poor, specifically the children, were being taken care of. In the slideshow below, is a local history on Philadelphia from 1868. While the Jewish orphanage isn’t mentioned (perhaps it wasn’t known by the author at time of publication) there are quite a few other homes mentioned in the text along with illustrations of the different city buildings and business ads, which are always fun to see.
For city directories, you might just get a confirmation of the address. In the case of my family, the 1927 Philadelphia City Directory lists the orphanage in the business pages at the back of the directory under “Homes, Asylums, and Day Nurseries” in the second column (second image below). It’s also listed in the alphabetized section under “Jewish” (third image below).
Apart from local histories and directories, Sutro Library has other resources that can help get you started on your search. While we don’t focus on one particular orphanage, we do have works on a variety of different institutions and sometimes we are the only library in Northern California, or in some cases all of California, to have a copy, which means these are ineligible for InterLibrary Loan and can only be viewed in the Reading Room.
After you’ve exhausted your search at your local genealogical library or online through a genealogical site, the next best place is to identify local history organizations where this orphanage was located and which repository might have the original records. If it does not come up in a google search or by searching through archival finding aid (aka inventory) catalogs like Online Archive of California or ArchiveGrid, then the local genealogical and historical societies may be able to point you in the right direction. In my case, Temple University houses the Philadelphia Jewish Archives Collection which has the records of the orphanage my ancestors grew up in.
The next part of this post will show examples of the different types of records that may be available to you once you are able to locate them:
Admission and discharge records – Ledgers from the home can contain information on when the child was admitted, their birth date, reason for admission, and date of discharge from the home. Along with these admission records are court report summaries which provide similar information as the ledger, only the main difference is it gives the address of where the father lived, and presumably where the children lived prior to admittance in the home (first image below).
2. Annual reports – While these may not provide information of genealogical value, these will provide contextual information and allow you to understand the current state and goals of the institution. Keep in mind that one of the functions of an annual report is to increase funds so it might not provide the most accurate representation of the home.
3. Newsletters – Records may also exist from the perspective of the residents of the home. The Jewish Foster Home offered many clubs for their children, and some of these clubs created records of their own. For example the Journalism Club published a newsletter. The content of these newsletters included pages on the occurrences within the home from new residents and birthdays to interviews with the staff or even gossip columns. If your ancestor is no longer in the home during the time of publication, there’s a chance they might be mentioned later on because this newsletter often provided updates on residents who had been discharged from the home.
4. Personal accounts – Another way to understand life in the home is to hear it, or read it, straight from them. Maybe even from someone who lived in the home with your ancestor? Oral histories, or even published accounts, may exist. In my case, I had the opportunity to interview my great Aunt Essie (the youngest daughter of Ida and eldest member of my family at the time). Another helpful source was an account of the home written by another alum, Jules Doneson in his Deeds of Love: A History of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum of Philadelphia — America’s First Jewish Orphanage.
Alongside annual reports and newsletters, memories of the home make it possible to analyze and compare the ideals of the home with the realities and help to contextualize my family’s experience.
5. Alumni records – Residents often kept in contact long after leaving the home and even created an alumni organization to stay in touch after they were discharged. For the Jewish Foster Home, it went by a few different names: Home Guys; the Pop Weiser Group; and 700 East Alumni Association. The Philadelphia Jewish Archives Collection recently made their finding aid available for this collection and in it includes a roster, mailing list, correspondence, video and photos from the home etc. Whenever I return to Philadelphia, this is definitely a collection I’d want to consult!
6. Other relief organization records – Similar to many immigrants during this time, my great great grandparents struggled to support their family. Fortunately, organizations existed to help immigrants. If your ancestor ended up an orphan, there’s a chance they or their parents needed financial assistance prior to admittance into an orphanage. Because of this, it’s important to look into other aid organizations that might have existed during this time. The Philadelphia Jewish Archives Collection also houses these records for the local Jewish relief organizations. For my ancestors, it was the United Hebrew Charities. In one of their collections was a case file relating to my family that is nine pages long and is one that I constantly go back to and reread as it has tremendous genealogical value. It was created when concerned neighbors (or perhaps family or friends) requested the UHC to get involved and provide assistance. Meticulous notes were taken documenting each time the agent interacted (or tried to) with the Cohens.
Whenever a name was mentioned, an address was often tagged along with it. On the first page of the file (see image on the left), I find the addresses of family, an employer, and a landlord. There are more included in the rest of the file. All of these names allow me to expand Ida’s “FAN Club.”
This is a term coined by renowned genealogist and author Elizabeth Shown Mills and means:
When we expand our search to include the above list of associated people, we often find out more information about our ancestors. For example, the summaries written on 4/27/20 and 4/28/20 of this case file mentioned an aunt by the name of Mrs. Israel in Camden, New Jersey. Because this document is dated for 1920, I then searched the 1920 census hoping to find a match, and I did! The address in the census matched the address in the blurb for 4/28/20. This find, like many others from this file, led me to other documents regarding Sarah’s relation to Ida.
Finding this case file as well as other records might not have happened if I hadn’t consulted with the archivist of the Philadelphia Jewish Archives Collection. On my own, it was hard to wrap my head around all of the mergers and name changes that happened between the various relief organizations. Because of this, many different finding aids exist. The archivist (or librarian in some cases) will help you navigate their finding aids and may be able to point you to what other collections may be of genealogical value. Similarly, the librarians at Sutro Library are here to assist you in any way. Feel free to reach out to us via email at email@example.com or give us a call at (415) 469 – 6100.
To summarize, here are the steps to researching your orphan ancestor:
Start your research with the census, especially if your ancestor lived at an orphanage during a census year;
Find a city directory or local history and learn more about how the children were cared for;
Once you have identified the orphanage, try googling or searching archival catalogs like ArchiveGrid, in order to locate the orphanage’s records;
Contact local genealogical and historical societies if you need further assistance;
Once the records have been located, don’t just look at admission records. Also look at records that may not be of immediate genealogical value like annual reports and newsletters;
There’s a high probability other relief organizations provided assistance to your family prior to your ancestor becoming an orphan so consult with your local archivist to identify those records too.
All of these examples are just a few of the records you may be able to use when researching an orphan ancestor, leading you one step closer to learning more about them and the place they once called home.
Share in the comments below what resources you have found helpful in your own orphan ancestor research!
Please note: If any of the Sutro Library’s materials state the location is in the “Vault,” we ask that you please give us at least 2 business days advance notice before your visit by emailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org or calling us at (415) 469 – 6100.
Did you know that the Sutro Library has over 2,000 biographical dictionaries in its collection (such as Who’s Who publications) from all over the United States as well as internationally? These useful sources can help provide the historical context for your ancestor’s life. In this blog post written by one of our volunteers, Ryan Dickson, Ryan explores the kinds of information found in these types of publications. If you are interested in finding these sources at the Sutro Library, try searching the catalog by combining your geographic area of interest (country or state) and the word “biography.” If you need help, feel free to contact us at email@example.com or via the Ask a Librarian service on the California State Library website.
Browsing the book stacks here at Sutro Library I am struck by the plethora of biographical sketches from across the globe and time. As an English professor, these collections spark my interest because they show how print media concretizes the atmosphere of a given era.
One such collection, Men of Hawaii particularly stood out because of its bold black cover and golden embossed lettering shining outwardly. 
This reminded me that Edward Said, who coined the word orientalism and wrote a controversial book on the subject, defines it as the process of restructuring another’s land, especially when that reconstructing comes with the heavy hand of colonial bureaucracy. And it is in Men of Hawaii, where editor George F. Nellist focuses his attention on men who have made the Islands a career rather than promoting Hawaiians themselves.
Similar books, Who’s Who in the World for example (4th, 5th, and 7th Editions all in Sutro Library’s Reading Room), include selected individuals as well as those who paid to appear in the collection and wrote their own sketches too. Therefore this collection offers a glimpse into what some of the men of Hawaii thought of themselves, along with a look at who believes that appearing in such a collection is important.
These sketches are part of a longer series also published by Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Ltd., including The Story of Hawaii and Its Builders, which is also housed in the Sutro Library stacks. In its foreword, Riley H. Allen writes that these collections provide a “standard reference work and record of men who deservedly occupy a high place in the industrial and cultural history of the Hawaiian Islands.”  This reflects the dominant theme of books published during this time period to take indigenous culture and reframe it on how it relates to the incoming culture.
Further pulling on themes of the early twentieth century, namely the patriarchy, believing males are the only noteworthy gender negates indigenous Hawaiian culture. For example, traditional Hawaiian culture recognizes three genders. The third, mᾱhū, possessing both masculine and feminine qualities, or both kapu and noa behavior roles, and often has a higher spiritual position within the community. Furthermore, in traditional Hawaiian culture, like most traditional cultures pre-Western intervention, gender roles were divided, but none were less important than the other, as they all held importance in the community’s prosperity. 
Discounting the fact that this collection of biographical sketches rejects any other genders’ ability to reach achievement within the Islands, Nellist affirms throughout the collection that it is mainly Anglo-Americans, and some Japanese, that are noteworthy. Figuring out what is noteworthy about the men sketched here is perplexing by today’s standards. Without a description in the collection stating what the criteria was for notable achievement or inclusion, we end up with legislators next to printers and we are left wondering why. What does a lawmaker have to do with a person who can produce mass media?
This physical manifestation of those deemed men of achievement defines who has status as a real man in the 1930s. This in turn devalues those men and women who are not included in the collection, namely indigenous Hawaiians.
Since many of the men included are born and educated on mainland America, one wonders what precipitated such a move. Possible it is similar to our current need for housing and a job. Colonization of the Hawaiian Islands offered many opportunities to impose the newcomer’s will on the land and people, as is demonstrated by the professional positions held by the entries. It is particularly the inclusion of educators that catches the readers’ attention.
Much like printing, educators reinforce ideological beliefs for their students to follow, societies prescribed notions of right and wrong, as well as failure and achievement (think grading, for example). One entry, W. Harold Loper, notes that with one year at Harvard post-baccalaureate, Loper became a high school principal for 3 years, then instructed summer sessions at University of Hawaii for a few years in an undisclosed discipline. Although Loper’s achievements seem average by today’s standards, the reader can’t help but wonder why he is still included among the “notable.”
Even when native Hawaiians are included, they are couched in terms of their place in the newcomer’s history. For example, Curtis Piehu Iaukea is given the title Financial Trustee, even though he is “a distinguished survivor of the monarchical era” (emphasis mine). Some of his other achievements include acting as chamberlain for the Hawaiian royals to attend Queen Victoria’s Jubilee and a meeting with President Cleveland. No real mentions of his duties, relationships, or achievements outside the Anglo world is given.
Perhaps it is a misnomer that these are men of achievement. Perhaps these are just men of Hawaii as the title suggests. Or perhaps these are the men whose achievements are sanctified by a certain ideology. Whatever it is, Nellist and The Honolulu Star-Bulletin appear to have promoted achievement based on its proximity to Anglo-American society.
Being surprised that a collection of this sort maintains antiquated hierarchies is a bit naïve. In fact almost any collection that attempts to record achievements, whether they are of men, women, indigenous, or newcomer, will exclude someone. However more than being a record of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands in 1930, Nellist and Men of Hawaii define what achievement looks like…
…and what achievement is willing to encompass.
 Men of Hawaii: A biographical record of men of substantial achievement in the Hawaiian Islands, volume 4, edited by George F. Nellist and published by The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Ltd., in 1930 and first published in 1917.
 The Story of Hawaii and Its Builders: An historical outline of Hawaii with Biographical sketches of its men of note and substantial achievement, past and present, who have contributed to the progress of the Territory (1925) published by Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Ltd..
Sewing is one of those domestic skills that has waned in popularity. Bravo TV’s reality show Project Runway aside, I rarely if ever hear my peers talking about or engaging in the activity. During my formative years, however, sewing definitely played a role in our household. My mom made my clothes until I was in the 2nd grade. I have vivid memories of going with her to the fabric store, looking at patterns by Butterick and Simplicity, and watching her lay the very delicate tissue-like paper patterns on top of the fabric we picked out and cutting very, very slowly and carefully.
When I grew older, my mom sent me to a sewing class where I learned the basics of the craft; however, I never mastered it like my mother or my grandmother (who was a seamstress for Catalina swimwear). Still, I am relatively comfortable around a sewing machine and can sew a button on or hem a pair of pants.
When it became evident that the Sutro Library needed heavier book weights (or snakes as they are called) for our large, folio books, I thought, “Hey, I can make those!” For readers not familiar with the handy reading room tool known as the book snake, they are “…designed to help hold open books, freeing up a researcher’s hands to take notes, take a picture, or hold a magnifying glass.” (Readers of this article are encouraged to learn more about how snakes are used with rare materials by reading the Folger Library’s excellent post on the matter found here: https://collation.folger.edu/2019/05/snakes-on-a-book/ ).
What I didn’t know is if I could find the specialized supplies needed to make them at a cheaper cost than what the traditional library vendors offered. We asked a few of our colleagues in the rare book and conservation professions for some advice and learned where to acquire the specialized lint-free cotton tubing needed for the outside of the snake. Next, we needed to find a “filler” that was not cost prohibitive for us. Our colleagues’ advice ranged from lead shot, to beans, to aquarium rocks. Lead is common in book snakes, but it poses a serious challenge to cleaning the snakes in the future. Dried beans are cheap and easy to find, but I was not comfortable with introducing organic matter that could break down over time around our books.
We settled on aquarium rock as our snake filler. It is a natural product, easy to clean, affordable, doesn’t off-gas or break down, and has enough “give” to gently curve over the book’s boards without being too stiff and unyielding.
The next step was to fire up my sewing machine, measure and cut the stockings into uniform lengths, and then sew up one side of the snake.
Next, I used a small scale to evenly distribute the aquarium rock into plastic bags. This accuracy made sure that all the completed snakes weighed the same and would not be under or overstuffed.
Once the bags were assembled, I needed an easy way to get the rocks into my limp snakes which proved harder than one would think. I poured each bag into a measuring cup and then transferred the rocks into a funnel that I held inside the opening of the snake.
The rocks were not uniform in size so the funnel opening frequently got blocked slowing the process significantly. To clear the blockages, I used a wooden skewer to keep the rocks flowing into the snake. Once the snakes were filled, I sewed up the open end which made the snakes look like sausages.
The cotton lining became too thin after stretching to absorb the rocks and I worried they would burst open if they snagged on something sharp in the future. To solve this problem, I “double bagged” them by cutting another sock for the sausages to go into.
The tricky part at this stage was to make each end have a nice seam since, once filled, the snakes became too thick to put through my sewing machine. This last step had to be done by hand which also took some time to complete. Having never made snakes before, I notice that there are some slight variations in length but generally speaking, I believe the finished product turned out fairly well.
Now when readers come into our reading room and need a book snake for one of our large books, these handmade weights are available for their use. While I am confident that my mom did not have book snakes in mind when she sent me to that sewing class all those years ago, I’m grateful to her all the same.
Special thanks to our former student volunteer, Allie Mariotta, and our former Library Technical Assistant, Elise Hochhalter, for their research assistance.
For more information:
If you wish to buy commercially produced book snakes, the following vendors are worth investigating:
[The following entry is from guest blogger and SF State University undergraduate, Carolina Basave, who worked on a small research project at the Sutro Library last semester. She supplied all of the text and images that follow.]
The Crossing the Line Ceremony certificate from above reads:
“CROSSED THE PACIFIC EQUATOR IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN IN THE GOOD AMERICAN LIBERTY SHIP, ADOLPH SUTRO ON HER MAIDEN VOYAGE, ON THE SEVENTH DAY OF JULY IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD NINETEEN HUNDRED AND FORTY * THREE”
The S.S. Adolph Sutro was a cargo ship built during World War II, and according to the National Museum of the United States Navy, the liberty ships “were built on a mass-production scale in order to save supplies…[as] the war progressed, the ships were also utilized as troop transports in the convoys.” Thus the liberty ships were created to help supply and fuel the World War II efforts, and then used to transport soldiers overseas.
Awarded to “L. Gray,” the mimeographed (a duplication process that predates modern photocopier) Crossing the Line certificate represented a long maritime tradition. According to the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, “L. Gray” was Leonard Ray Gray, an army private and 27 years old when he crossed the equator on the Pacific. The Navy Times mentioned that the Crossing the Line ceremony is a traditional initiation ceremony where sailors who have not crossed the equator before and then do for the first time transition “from a slimy pollywog to a trusty shellback during an equator line-crossing.” A ceremony performed by sailors who have already crossed the equator, the shellbacks, initiate the pollywogs in order to test their ability to, “with[stand] long voyages at sea.”  The ceremony is a an all-day performance and hazing ritual that represents the pollywogs initiation into King Neptune’s realm.
The equator represents the home of the Neptunus Rex or King Neptune, ruler of the deep and guardian of the mysteries of the sea. According to Thomas Wildenberg from the Naval History Magazine, the night before the ship crosses the equator, Davy Jones (a member of King Neptune’s royal court) appears in front of the Captain with a message on behalf of King Neptune, “stating at what time he wanted the ship to hove to receive the royal party.”  That same night, all of the pollywogs are subpoenaed from Davy Jones, “to appear before the royal court on the morrow to be initiated in the mysteries of King Neptune’s Royal Domain. Usually, the subpoenas would include a long list of fake offenses the pollywogs were charged with like, “too many captain’s masts, excessive liberty, or seasickness.” 
The rest of King Neptune’s royal court includes:
Her Highness Amphitrite, often a young seaman in a costume of seaweed and rope; the scribe; the doctor; and the barber. Other members often include the royal baby, usually the fattest man in the crew wearing only a diaper; the navigator; the chief bear and his assistants, the latter of whom perform the dunkings; the chaplain; jesters; and the devil. The royals also have a secretary, sometimes known as a clerk, notary, or chancellor, whose job is to enter the names of the candidates to be sentenced by the court.
Once King Neptune and his royal court appeared on deck, his flag known as the “Jolly Roger” appears, and the ceremony would begin.  The hazing would then take place and according to the U.S Navy it involves, “embarrassing tasks, gags, obstacles, physical hardships, and generally good-humored mischief”—all of which were meant to entertain the shellbacks and degrade the pollywog.” It is estimated that the hazing rituals could last for up to 12 hours or more. Once the hazing rituals were completed, the pollywogs would then become a shellback, and a worthy member of King Neptune’s realm. According to research, every ship practiced their own version of the hazing rituals, therefore every shellback’s experience would be unique to them, and according to U.S Navy, the Crossing the Line (or equator) Ceremonies are completely voluntary, and not every ship and crew participates or practices the ceremony.
After completing the ceremony and hazing rituals, the newly transitioned shellbacks would then receive their Crossing the Line certificates that commemorated their experience. I discovered most of the Line Crossing Ceremony certificates issued during World War II were incredibly detailed, vibrant in colors, and often had phrases written in Latin with a description of what the certificate signified. Many of them included drawings of mermaids, the ocean, a globe, King Neptune, Dolphins, and various marine life, and other mythical creatures depending on which equator crossing a pollywog passed through. While Leonard Gray’s certificate was a mimeographed copy of a quickly assembled sketch, it nevertheless included significant details like: mermaids, clam shells, a map of the world including the ocean, and even King Neptune’strident. According to the U.S Navy, there are handful of different certificates that all represent different equator crossings based on a specific Ocean or Sea.
Despite the certificate not being in color like a virtually all other certificates probably due to the fact that Leonard Gray was on board a liberty ship, in the middle of a war, they probably were not equipped with an artisan who could draw out the certificates. Regardless of the lack of color and detail, the certificates are equally as significant as the ceremony themselves. They showed that even during a war, the ships still exercised King Neptune’s long tradition of initiating pollywogs into this brotherhood of men who crossed the equator and earned their rightful place in King Neptune’s world. In 1953, the United States Navy begun to issue incredibly detailed certificates that were made — and continue to be — by the Tiffany Publishing Company in Norfolk, Virginia.
Leonard Gray was one of these men who back in 1943 went through the ceremony and joined the brotherhood of shellbacks even during war time proved his loyalty and worthiness to King Neptune. Today that tradition is upheld as countless pollywogs are currently being initiated into that same brotherhood, all connected by their experiences crossing the equator.
Here are examples of recent Crossing the Line Certificates earned by my older brother’s friend, a current submariner YNSN Scotty H.
If you would like to see the Crossing the Equator/Line certificate of “L.Gray” please email the Sutro Library (firstname.lastname@example.org) two days in advance of your visit and mention the following item and call number:
SS Adolph Sutro Equator Crossing Certificate, July, 7, 1943. Place of publication not identified: [S.S. Adolph Sutro Liberty Ship], 1943, call number MISC000346
On a list of what to do while in San Francisco, at the top is most certainly a visit to Golden Gate Park. This year marks the 150th anniversary with 100 institutions throughout San Francisco participating in some way to celebrate Golden Gate Park’s past, present, and future. One of the largest parks in the world at 1017 acres (New York’s Central Park is 843), its origins and that of San Francisco’s rise to prominence are parallel tales.
The first urban parks- ones that were open to the general public as recreational, cultural, and free green spaces — in the United States and Great Britain weren’t established until after the mid-nineteenth century and before the real effects of the Industrial Revolution’s mass urbanization were felt. Open spaces were still within walking distance. The new industrial labor opportunities caused a massive population shift from the countryside to jobs in urban centers, causing major cities to burst at the seams.
With industrialization, its attendant pollution, crowded tenements, poor sanitation, and the physical dislocation from nature, Victorians responded with the firm belief that creating open urban green spaces was essential to combat the material ills of the time. Civic leaders and politicians alike understood the psychological and physical needs of the citizens, and large urban parks were their anodyne.
In the late eighteenth century and into the first part of the nineteenth century, rather than there being public parks, “pleasure gardens” existed as urban escapes, and were to be found all over Europe and the United states. These were privately owned spaces that were open to the public and provided opportunities for different social classes to dress up in their finest and to see and be seen.
Vauxhall Gardens in Kensington, London is the most notable pleasure garden and the most famous. Its popularity drew visitors from around the globe. Europeans often came back so enamored they introduced pleasure gardens into their home countries. In fact, the word Vauxhall became synonymous with the concept, so much so that it entered into the lexicons of France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, and Russia. And many of the attributes associated with pleasure gardens, ranging from balloon rides, to theater, dances, refreshments, concerts, artwork, scientific demonstrations, as well as exotic elements, such as masquerades, vaudeville, and even volcanic eruptions, created a dynamic social space where individuals from all walks of life intermixed.
It was also a place where the middling classes could become “elevated” by interacting with those of a higher rank. Although the cost was relatively low – Vauxhall charged one shilling – it was prohibitive for the lowest classes. Dress attire was of upmost importance, another facet that excluded the extremely poor. In fact, some gardens would allow free entry, but only to those who were dressed “in a genteel manner.”
These pleasure gardens were precursors to the large urban parks that were to follow, in that large urban parks were meant to provide an idyll rural setting within a city and were meant to provide individuals a place of recreation, entertainment, and sanctuary from the pollution and concrete of cities. Indeed, local entrepreneur and philanthropist – and our library’s founder Adolph Sutro – opened his own property in San Francisco to the city as a public park on certain days of the week, free of charge.
San Francisco’s meteoric rise in population did not account for the planning of green spaces. Starting with the Gold Rush, San Francisco became a major international metropolis, exploding from a town of around 1000 in 1848 to over 25,000 by 1849. Other factors like California’s entry into the Union in 1850, the Comstock discovery of 1859, the completion of the trans-continental railroad in 1869, followed by cable car service in 1873 – which allowed people to move further away from the city center – all served to boost the city’s prosperity and population.
As the city became more sophisticated and more densely populated, civic leaders like William Chapman Ralston helped to garner support for building a large urban park like New York City’s Central Park. In 1868 Governor Henry Haight signed a bill establishing the Golden Gate Park Commissioners Board. On April 4, 1870, the state legislature set the park’s boundaries and shortly after that the governor appointed the Board of Park Commissioners. That same year engineer William Hammond Hall surveyed and was then hired to design the park, serving as its first Superintendent. William Hammond Hall had worked for the Army Corp of Engineers and was an expert in soil management. He along with highly respected and accomplished horticulturist, John McLaren, transformed the barren desert into green space.
The initial task of the Park Commission was to sell $225,000 worth of municipal bonds for immediate park improvements as well as to oversee its development. Municipal bonds for those of you who don’t know (like me), are securities issued by governmental entities to fund public projects, like highways, schools, and parks. The buyer is basically loaning money to the city in exchange for regular interest payments later on.
John McLaren is the person in history most associated with the park because of his long tenure. Over the years he continued to improve and develop the park and his condition for serving as Superintendent was the stipulation that the city provide $30,000 a year for improvements, and so began his 53 years as Superintendent and caretaker of Golden Gate Park. The city even passed a charter amendment that exempted him from forced retirement. On his 92nd birthday San Francisco honored him as its number one citizen. He lived in McLaren Lodge until his death in 1943 at the age of 96. The lodge is located next to the Conservatory of Flowers and in the Northeastern corner of Golden Gate Park on Stanyan. It now serves as the administrative headquarters for the San Francisco Recreation and Parks Department.
In 1900 a city charter reform transferred administrative power for the park from the three-person governor-appointed board, to the city and county of San Francisco. They then created a five-member Park Commission, providing closer contact with the park’s development and the needs of San Francisco. Prior to 1950 the Park Commission and the Recreation Commission were parallel entities with the latter operating and managing playgrounds, athletic fields, and recreational facilities across the city. In 1950 the two commissions merged under the auspices of the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department and today is responsible for overseeing and managing the organization and maintenance of over 220 parks, playgrounds and open spaces in San Francisco, as well as some outlying areas like Camp Mather in Yosemite.
Over the years Golden Gate Park has been host to numerous fairs, festivals, events, and concerts. The 1894 California Midwinter International Exposition attracted 2.5 million visitors. The park has also been used to help in emergencies. During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake/’Great Fire,’ around 250,000 were left homeless with 80% of the city destroyed. Across San Francisco, refugee camps sprung up, with Golden Gate Park hosting somewhere close to 40,000 refugees. John McLaren quickly organized the chaos, and designed “Earthquake Shacks” as wells as tents, setting up makeshift towns in regimented rows. Even after two years some of those ’towns’ were still in operation.
Today, the park is home to other attractions and recreation: tennis courts, a nine-hole golf course, the California Academy of Sciences, a bison herd, picnic areas, fly fishing pools – the list goes on.
San Francisco Recreation and Parks is excited to celebrate the 150th anniversary. The California State Library – Sutro Library is also participating in this celebration and has an exhibit in our reading room featuring images, maps, and ephemera from Sutro’s collection as well as the State Library’s California History collections. Events are scheduled to begin April 4thhttps://www.goldengatepark150.com/nd, 2020, but due to the coronavirus, this start is uncertain. For the latest updates, visit their website at https://sfrecpark.org/
Most of the images in this post are from the California State Library – California History Room and the California State Library -Sutro Library. The Pleasure Garden images and the industrial city image are from the British Museum. And the image of John Muir and John Mclaren is from Calisphere.
Among Sutro Library’s collections of books from colonial Mexican libraries are several that were kept and used by women’s convents. Though women were largely excluded from intellectual pursuits, these books account for some of the activities of “mujeres letradas” (lettered women), who were writers, printers, and readers. As Nuria Salazar Simarro writes in her article “Los libros del noviciado del convento de Jesus Maria de Mexico” (The Books of the Novitiate of the Convento de Jesus Maria de Mexico), the marks of ownership left in books that circulated within (and sometimes between) convents contest “la idea de falta de acceso de la mujer a una formacion intellectual” (the idea that women lacked access to intellectual development).
You can click on the italicized sub-headings to view Sutro’s catalog records for materials so far identified has having been owned by that convent. As the number of identified items grows, so will the records viewable at these links. To inquire about any of these materials, or request them for use in our reading room, please email us at email@example.com.
The top edge of this book is branded, but the symbol has been made using an ink pen on the bottom edge. The symbol is a monogram that uses the letters C, H, V, R, B, S, and O, the letters needed to spell Churubusco.
A copy of Santa Teresa de Avila’s Avisos espirituales bears the firebrand of the Convento de Santa Clara de Mexico. The book is inscribed by Francisca Maria de San Antonio, and beneath is another inscription which begins: “es libro ya no me acuerdo si me lo dieron o prestaron” (I no longer remember if this book was given or loaned to me). Vows of poverty prevented ownership of property, and books changed hands readily. Sometimes they were kept in a communal space, other times reserved by one or a few sisters for a prolonged period. “Los libros no contaban con un lugar fijo” (Books did not have fixed locations), Salazar Simarro notes.
On the edges of El religioso en soledad is written the name of a previous owner, Sor Maria Josefa de San Ignacio, a prominent member of the Convento de Jesus Maria in Mexico City who paid for the reprinting of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz’s Protesta de la fe in 1763.  A second mark of ownership, an inscription on the front free endpaper, states it is for her use. At the very end of the second volume is a third, longer inscription that gives a brief custodial history. First, it notes that San Ignacio was not just the former owner of this book, but solicited it as a donation from another sister. It asks “those who use it to pray for both” the donor and the solicitor, thus inviting multiple users, a sense of communal ownership, and a net positive from its increased circulation.
Painted Book Cover
This book’s original covers have been ensconced in decorative paper painted blue, orange, black and white. Look closely at the lower right-hand corner and you’ll see a two-color fabric tie sticking through the covering material. The paint used on the cover must have still been wet because some of it has transferred onto the front end paper. A previous owner has written a note begging whoever takes this book from her library to not hold on to it for too long.
As this blog post comes to an end, we should also reflect on the demise of these libraries. Many were dispersed in the 19th century as anticlericalism grew in Mexico. The separation of church and state came with the sale and nationalization of church property. Salazar Simarro outlines the complex afterlives of these books as convents tried to place them in sympathetic hands. She details a harrowing story in which the library of the Convento de Jesus Maria Mexico survived for many decades in a bath tub.
In Sutro Library’s copy of Arco iris de paz (Seville: Viuda de Francisco Lorenzo de Hermosilla, 1729), previously held by the Convento de Santa Clara, are a couple of small, printed forms summoning choir singers to a funeral service. Only one is dated, but they appear contemporary and so are likely from around the same time: 1857. That year, a new constitution took effect which led to severe rifts between the Mexican state and Catholic Church, with the archbishop of Mexico City threatening to excommunicate any Mexican Catholics who pledged allegiance to the new constitution. (Note that the images below represent one item, showing front and back.)
—Jose Guerrero is Cataloging and Metadata Librarian at Sutro Library.
 For a study of annotated books at women’s convents, see Nuria Salazar Simarro, “Los libros del noviciado del conveto de Jesus Maria de Mexico. Sus anotaciones manuscritas.” Boletin de Monumentos Historicos (Tercera Epoca), No. 40, May-August 201, pages 116-142. http://boletin-cnmh.inah.gob.mx/boletin/boletines/116-142.pdf
[The following entry is from guest blogger and SF State University undergraduate, Giselle H., who worked on a small research project at the Sutro Library last semester. She supplied all the text and images that follow.]
This semester I had the opportunity to research at Sutro Library, which provided me with experience in handling and analyzing rare and historical materials. The decision to pick just one item to further research was more challenging than I anticipated because there were various books, booklets, and other documents catching my attention. I ultimately chose a nursery rhyme called Good Morning.
Good Morning is a collection of seven short nursery rhymes bound with thread in a style called the saddle stitch. This type of bookbinding is most commonly used for smaller books and can be done by most commercial print shops. Nowadays, a saddle stitch is done with metal staples rather than thread. While it’s a simple and inexpensive method, it’s not the best long-term because books can easily be damaged, especially when compared to other types of binding like leather. Because Good Morning was bound in this way, it leads me to believe it was not widely published and was meant for short term keeping. This might not be all that unusual for nursery rhyme books published in the past, when children had shorter childhoods than compared to those in present times. The reason why this book seems to have endured over the years is due to the careful preservation effort of the Sutro Library staff. Credit may also go to the donor, Miss Lottie G. Woods, who donated several other rare books to the Sutro Library.
To begin the exciting process of unraveling the mysteries behind this children’s book, I decided to start with the author. Curiously enough, this little book possesses neither an author’s name nor the date or location of its publication in the front pages as expected. I searched through each rhyme, but I could not find any sort of evidence that pointed to the creator. That is until I took a closer look at the back cover. First, I noticed the almost faded handwritten inscription in the upper right corner of the cover which would have struck me as daring vandalism had I not recognized a name inscribed in it. Second, there was a very small, almost invisible scraggly black line at the bottom of the frame surrounding the nursery rhyme that I found to be a little odd. Could it be what I was looking for all this time? Why yes indeed! I have found the author’s signature at last!
To the naked eye, it is easy to dismiss as nothing more than being part of the illustration. Upon closer inspection with assistance from a camera, the traces of a name could be read. Perhaps the name of the book’s author? Even though the letters are very faint and almost completely faded in some parts, I was able to read it as NEELEY BWS WELLE.DEL Sadly, my delight at discovering the author’s mark was cut short when I could not find any information relating to the name. Whether it’s the name of a person or publishing house remains to be discovered.
Taking the lack of a creator’s name and the binding style into consideration, I reached the conclusion that perhaps this rhyme book was a single and privately published copy not intended for the market. Other conclusions I reached were that this book might not have been as popular as others during its publishing, hence the reason for a lack of records, implying that its creator was not well-known, if at all. This then, would explain the reason behind the insufficient information about this particular piece of work. Yet another potential and possibly stronger conclusion I came to was that this book might have been created as a gift for a family member with the means for private publication.
Perhaps a gift to the donor, Miss Lottie G. Woods? Her name is written in cursive on the upper right corner of the back cover as previously mentioned, along with a date. What I initially thought was vandalism could be a clue linking back to Miss Woods. The blue ink spot was already there when the book was donated to the Sutro Library sadly, as did the two white orbs on the book’s front cover, which serve as a good reminder to always take better care of delicate books like this.
Most of my research on Miss Woods found her in city and county records. I was not able to find much information regarding her life as it seems she did not leave personal written records of any kind, besides the little inscriptions on her donations.
What I did discover was that Miss Woods was quite generous in her donations. Not only did she donate various items to the Sutro Library, but she also donated other collections to the California Historical Society as well.
I also found out that she was a member of the Sorosis Club chapter in San Francisco. The Sorosis Club was a club originally founded in New York City around 1886, by the female reporter Jane Cunningham Croly. The club was in the words of Jone Johnson Lewis; a women’s movement activist; “…a professional women’s association, created in 1868 by Jane Cunningham Croly, because women were usually shut out of membership in the organizations of many professions. Croly, for example, was prohibited from joining the male-only New York Press Club…Croly and others hoped that the club would inspire confidence in women and bring ‘womanly self-respect and self-knowledge’ ” (Sorosis: Professional Women’s Club, Thoughtco.com).
In addition to being one of the first clubs that promoted intellect and reasoning among women, the Sorosis Club was also responsible for the creation of the General Federation of Women’s clubs (GFWC), which essentially helped with the organization and encouraging of other women’s clubs in the United States. Sadly, the Sorosis club in San Francisco is no longer active however, the GFWC is both still active and strong and continues to be involved in the social and political environment.*Evidence of Miss Woods presence has been certainly recorded in the club’s roster as evident by the 32nd edition of the Blue Book and Club Directory (see below).
If Miss Woods was then a member of the Sorosis Club which encouraged intellect and social integration, then it should come as no surprise as to how and why she came to possess quite the large collection of interesting and historically important documents and sources including this nursery rhyme book. I would like to think that possibly inspired by the club’s ideals or as a way to keep important documents well taken care of, Miss Woods contributed to the further preservation of historical primary sources through her gracious donations to various libraries and institutions, and for that we are thankful.
–-Written by Giselle H.
*For more information about the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, please visit their website at: www.gfwc.org
If you are interested in seeing this nursery rhyme fragment, please email firstname.lastname@example.org two business days in advance of your visit. Make sure to mention this information in your email:
Halswelle, Keeley. [Nursery Rhymes…] [fragment]. London?: [publisher not stated], 1851
One of the major go-to resources for conducting genealogical research is the census. It’s often the best place for beginning genealogists to start. Depending on the year of the census, a researcher can find information on their ancestor’s birth place and year, immigration year and status, age at first marriage, birth place of ancestor’s parents, occupation and much more. In honor of this invaluable resource and the upcoming 2020 census, we hosted an event on Wednesday, January 22nd, with curators from the UC Berkeley Library’s Census Exhibit, Ann Glusker and Jesse Silva, who spoke about the importance of the census and its historical context.
A decennial population count is required by the Constitution (Article 1, Section 2). The main purpose for the census is to determine the number of seats each state has in the U.S. House of Representatives. It is also used to distribute federal funds to local communities.
The census began in 1790 and has occurred ever since. Back then, marshals rode around on horseback to record: names of head of house; free white males of 16 years and upward; free white males under 16 years; free white females; all other free persons; and slaves. The upcoming 2020 Census will be conducted almost entirely online. Respondents are given the option to complete the form in paper, over the phone or on the census site.
While aggregate data and statistics are available from 1790-2010, individual census records (known as census schedules) which are valuable to genealogists are released after 72 years from the date of the census due to privacy laws. From 1790 – 1940 the census schedules are available on microfilm at the National Archives and its branches or online through sites like Ancestry.com. You can access all of these at the Sutro Library. Unfortunately, there is one census that is no longer available: most of the 1890 census was destroyed in a fire in 1921. If your ancestor isn’t one of the lucky ones found on the few surviving fragments, then you’re left turning to supplementary resources from this time period like voter rolls. Genealogists and other researchers anxiously await the release of the 1950 census in two years! The first digital census was in 2000 which means we won’t get to see the first computerized census again until it’s released in 2072! This also means you still need to hone in on your ability to read handwriting.
Long Form and American Community Survey
By 1940, the census began to ask a select population (1 in 6 respondents) additional questions. This paper form was longer than the actual census form which earned it its name “long form.” Some questions on this form included: income, education, where respondent lived 5 years ago, ancestry, etc. The year 2000, was the last decennial census for which the long form was used. The decision was made that the long form questions needed to be answered more frequently than every ten years. As of 2005, the American Community Survey has gathered information that was previously asked on the long form every year from a sample of the population. Not every part of U.S. is included in their survey, however; American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and US Virgin Islands are excluded from ACS. Aggregate data from the ACS can be accessed via the census site or through proprietary sources like Social Explorer. Similar to previous censuses, the individual responses will be released in 72 years.
Race and Ethnicity
The representation of race/ethnicity in the official census has changed over the decades and are products of the time in which they were created. Some of the terms still used can be seen as anachronistic and insensitive, e.g. Black, African American or Negro. The reason the latter term is still used is because it was found that older members of this community preferred to refer to themselves in this way over the former terms. Prior to 1960, race was subjective and the census taker chose the race for the respondent based on what they saw. For instance, if a person of color had lighter skin, then it was common for them to be mistakenly described as white. In 1970, the population began to fill out the entire form by themselves, but even then, the options for race were limited. For example, respondents were only able to choose one race until the 2000 census.
The following categories are currently used according to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB): White; Black or African American; American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. This definition on race has not changed since the 1990s. Hispanic/Latino is considered an ethnicity not a race by the OMB as they believe that Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
Exhibit: Power and the People – The U.S. Census and Who Counts
Other topics covered in the UC Berkeley Library Census exhibit include gender and sexual orientation, immigration, poverty and income, and controversies.
The exhibit will be up for another month until March 1, 2020. It is located in the Doe Library on the UC Berkeley campus. For more information, please visit: https://exhibits.lib.berkeley.edu/spotlight/census and check out this article written by Berkeley Library News. The next event in relation to this exhibit will be a panel featuring renowned experts on race/ethnicity and the census: Cristina Mora, Michael Omi, Taeku Lee and Tina Sacks. The event is on March 19, 2020 at 5pm in the Morrison Library (which is located inside the Doe Library). For more information on the UC Berkeley Library’s exhibit events, visit here.
Special thank you to Ann Glusker and Jesse Silva for coming to Sutro Library and doing such an amazing and engaging talk.
Today’s blog post was written by Sutro Library’s Genealogy Librarian, Dvorah Lewis.
Your Guide to the Federal Census: For Genealogists, Researchers, and Family Historians by Kathleen Hinckley, Sutro Library Reading Room